In the 1950s, a group of Russian artists—whose names we have forgotten—gathered around a computer and produced the first comprehensive “Introduction to Drawing” book. In the early 1970s, the English translations, by the Russian artist Paul Hirst (who is credited with coming up with “the Russian alphabet”), became the most popular books on the subject. There are many variations of those books, in which the author presents diagrams in English to illustrate the elements of a drawing, and the reader gets help from a list of grammar rules and a few words relating to anatomy. But the basic concept remains the same: the student is presented with a series of pictures to make a drawing—and to indicate things, like line width and line thickness, that it may not necessarily know. To help, the book provides a few examples (many of them are also used by professional artists):
a. A close-up of a woman, the skin of her face has been carefully smoothed out by smoothing on a smooth layer of gray paper or a similar material. The eyes need no smoothing. It should be possible to see as clearly as is clearly visible (from the perspective of the viewer on the computer screen) what is there.
b. The face of a man faces are shown with a slightly wider than normal nose, and the eyebrows have been drawn downward at an angle with a slight angle at the lower edge. This will let the eyebrows appear to rise, and at their back and uppermost point, will make a strong-looking nose appear.
c. The figure of a woman with an elongated figure, one arm in its normal position and the other at the shoulder is shown using a narrow line from left to right. This line will make a strong body appear.
d. The figure of an arm in a horizontal position is drawn with a short horizontal line and a wider line from right to left. This will make the arm seem much longer.
e. The figure of an arm with its arm extended out and extended in a curved manner, with the arm in the normal position, is shown in a straight line. The curve is from left to right and from right to left.
f. The figure of a person with the head tilted forward with the nose to one side, with the mouth closed, appears as a large square which is drawn with a point that is raised above the head. This will make the figure seem broader.
g. As before, the
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